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Andrew G. Lee, MD
He is editor of The Neuro-Connection. He is professor of ophthalmology, neurology, and neurosurgery, The H. Stanley Thompson Neuro-ophthalmology Clinic, Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City.
Simultaneous ocular myasthenia gravis and thyroid eye disease: beware
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an autoimmune disease that is usually seen in patients with Graves’ thyrotoxicosis although it can also be seen in hypothyroid as well as euthyroid patients. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is also an autoimmune antibody mediated disorder characterized by fluctuating weakness of the skeletal muscles that can occur with TED.
Analysis: Competency-based model to take over graduate medical education
The apprenticeship model suffers from inherent limitations that have called into question not only the safety but the quality, appropriateness, and effectiveness of the training model for residents. External stakeholders in the educational process, including the public, the payers, and the government, have called for reform in the graduate medical education process and for transformation from the apprenticeship model to a competency-based model of education.
Implementation of the accreditation council for graduate medical education outcome project in ophthalmology
Ophthalmic resident and fellowship education programs in the United States are responding to the changing requirements of working in a modern health-care delivery system and new incentives have been created for transforming the "apprenticeship model" to a "competency-based" model of education.
Ten tips for the ophthalmologist in ordering neuro-imaging
MRI is in general superior to CT for neuro-ophthalmic indications. A CT study, however, might be useful [under certain circumstances].
Erectile dysfunction agents, NAION: causal or coincidental?
It might be wise to counsel patients regarding the possible but likely low risk of NAION, especially for individuals with a higher risk for NAION.
How to screen asymptomatic patients taking HCQ
A 65-year-old obese man with systemic lupus erythematosus presents to the ophthalmology clinic, referred from rheumatology for "toxicity screening" after starting therapy with hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQ) 400 mg per day (Plaquenil Sulfate). He had prior lupus-related glomerulonephritis but has a stable serum creatinine level. There was no liver dysfunction.
How to choose the best visual field testing strategy for neuro-ophthalmic patients
Every patient should undergo at least screening confrontation visual field testing.
RASP offers direction for future of geriatric ophthalmology research
This [demographic] shift will have a disproportionate impact on the specialty of ophthalmology.
'Intracranial shunts 101' for the ophthalmologist
The typical signs and symptoms of shunt malfunction include headache, neck pain, malaise, nausea and vomiting, mental status changes, increased blood pressure, or seizure.
Demographic changes lead to paradigm shifts for ophthalmology
The population of the United States is aging. There are now 34 million Americans aged 65 and over (13% of the total). By 2030 this number is expected to grow to 69 million (20% of total) and to an astounding 80 million people by 2050.


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