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    Managing conjunctival pigmented lesions

    Ability to identify nevus, primary acquired melanosis, melanoma can improve prognosis for patients



    1. Yu GP, Hu DN, McCormick S, Finger PT. Conjunctival melanoma: Is it increasing in the United States? Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:800-806.

    2. Shields CL, Markowitz JS, Belinsky I, et al. Conjunctival melanoma: Outcomes based on tumor origin in 382 consecutive cases. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:389-395.

    3. Shields CL, Chien JL, Surakiatchanukul T, Sioufi K, Lally SE, Shields JA. Conjunctival tumors: Review of clinical features, risks, biomarkers, and outcomes--The 2017 J. Donald M. Gass Lecture. Asia-Pac J Ophthlamol. 2017;6:109-120.

    4. Larsen AC, Dahmcke CM, Dahl C, et al. A retrospective review of conjunctival melanoma presentation, treatment, and outcome and an investigation of features associated with BRAF mutations. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133:1295-1303.

    5. Larsen AC, Dahl C, Dahmcke CM, et al. BRAF mutations in conjunctival melanoma: Investigation of incidence, clinicopathological features, prognosis, and paired premalignant lesions. Acta Ophthalmol. 2016;94:463-470.

    6. Nagore E, Heidenreich B, Rachakonda S, et al. TERT promoter mutations in melanoma survival. Int J Cancer. 2016;139:75-84.



    Carol L. Shields, MD

    E: [email protected] or [email protected]

    This article was adapted from Dr. Shields’ presentation during Cornea Subspecialty Day at the 2016 meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmologyy. Dr. Shields is a consultant to Aura Biosciences.

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