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    Studying aqueous humour outflow with aqueous angiography

    With aqueous angiographic information, individualised MIGS placement may become possible


    Future perspectives

    Dr Huang notes some limitations in aqueous angiography. For example, currently, aqueous angiography with the Spectralis requires the FLEX module, which is a prototype stand only available to a handful of investigators in the world.

    Furthermore, the steps involved in aqueous angiography—arranging the camera, accessing the eye, delivering the tracer and taking the images—require time. Thus, while not insurmountable, continued evolution of the method with future iterations should “streamline the process beyond current constraints and make it accessible to all ophthalmologists”.

    Ultimately, future efforts should determine if aqueous angiography-guided MIGS provides better and more consistent results. If this is the case, “one could envision customised and targeted surgical placement of MIGS in each eye of every individual” for, potentially, better final IOP-lowering outcomes in the future, Dr Huang said.

    Additionally, angiography may allow us to better understand both normal and diseased aqueous humour outflow. Pharmacologically, aqueous angiography may help identify new drugs for IOP lowering as well. 

    Imagined to its greatest extent, aqueous angiography and individualised imaging-determined therapies supports the National Institute of Health’s goal to develop more customised patient care and personalised medicine.


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    E: [email protected]

    Dr Huang is an assistant professor, clinician-scientist and one of the founding members of the Doheny Eye Institute and University of California, Los Angeles, United States. His aqueous angiographic work is supported by Heidelberg Engineering and Glaukos Corporation.


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